Black Sea (Karadeniz in Turkish) lies to the north of Turkey,
bordering with two regions; Marmara and Black Sea. Besides
Turkey, other countries that circle the Black Sea are;
Bulgaria, Romania, Russia, Ukraine, and Georgia. It's
connected to the Sea of Marmara with the Bosphorus Strait in
the southwest. Some of the important ports on the Black Sea
are; Istanbul, Trabzon, Samsun, Sinop, Burgas, Varna,
Constanza, Yalta, Odessa, Sevastopol, Kerch, Novorossiysk,
Sochi, Sukhumi, Poti, and Batumi.
Black Sea is an inland sea covering an area of about
420thousand square kilometers reaching at 2206 meters in its
deepest point. Below 200 meters the oxygen level in the
water is very low so marine life is very limited below this
depth. Most known fish they catch in the Black Sea are;
Black Sea turbot, gurnard, and small sharks.
Its waters are warm in the summer, very cold in the winter.
Its salinity is around 0,18% because of a constant inflow of
fresh water from rivers surrounding it, the excess water
flows on the surface through the Bosphorus meanwhile the
warm and salty waters of the Mediterranean reach the Black
Sea with deep water currents, maintaining the stratification
and salinity levels. The most important rivers flowing into
the Black Sea are Danube from north east, Kizilirmak,
Sakarya and Yesilirmak from Anatolia in the south.
Black Sea is one of the youngest seas on the Earth, its used
to be a big fresh water lake some 8000 years ago. The name
is probably derived from the color of its deep waters.
Sea of Marmara
Sea of Marmara (Marmara Denizi in Turkish) is an inland sea
within the Marmara region connecting to the Black Sea with
the Bosphorus Strait in the northeast, and to the Aegean
with the Dardanelles Strait in the southwest. It lies
between Thrace and Anatolia parts of Turkey, covering an
area of over 11thousand square kilometers. It is
approximately 280 km long from northeast to southwest and
about 80 km wide at its greatest width. Its maximum depth
reaches 1355 meters near the center.
There are many marble sources on its islands which gave its
name to the Sea; marble is Marmaros in Greek and Mermer in
Turkish. Some of the main islands in the Sea of Marmara are;
Avsa, Marmara, Imrali, and Princes Islands near Istanbul (Buyukada,
Heybeli, Burgaz, Kinali, and Sedef).
The salinity level is little bit over that of the Black Sea,
but much less than the oceans. However, sea-bottom waters
are much more saline almost as of the Mediterranean, but
like in the Black Sea these two layers do not get combined.
Aegean Sea (Ege Denizi in Turkish) is a part of
Mediterranean Sea lying between Turkey and Greece. There is
Mediterranean Sea to the south, Greek Peninsula to the west,
Anatolia and part of Thrace to the east. It's connected to
the Sea of Marmara by Dardanelles Strait to the northeast.
It covers an area of 214thousand square kilometers,
stretching for about 660 kilometers from north to south, and
reaching at a maximum depth of 3543 meters. Tides are very
limited in the Aegean Sea.
Aegean Sea gave its name to the Aegean region and shows a
typical Mediterranean climate characteristics; summers are
dry and winters are rainy but not much cold. The water
temperature during summer months reaches 23-24 degrees
Celsius, and usually northern part of the Sea is a little
bit cooler than its southern part. In contrary, northern
part is abundant about the fish than its southern part.
There were many ancient civilizations who settled on its
shores in the past, such as Minoans, Mycenaean, Trojans,
Persians, Romans, Byzantines, Seljuks, Ottomans and so on.
It's said that its name is coming either from Aegea, an
Amazonian queen who died in the sea, or from Aegeus, the
father of Theseus, who drowned himself in the sea.
There are approximately 3000 big and small islands in the
Aegean Sea, most of them belong to Greece today. Some of the
most famous Greek islands in the Aegean are; Crete, Rhodes,
Lesbos, Chios, Santorini, Mykonos, Patmos, Delos, Paros, Kos,
Symi, Samos and so on. Turkey has very few small islands and
only two mid-size islands in front of the Dardanelles;
Bozcaada and Gokceada. Because of this high concentration of
islands and rockies, there are also many gulfs and bays in
the Aegean which attracts many people for sailing in this
crystal clear waters.
Aegean Sea and some of the Aegean islands brought several
controversial issues between Turkey and Greece, both NATO
countries, regarding mostly sovereignty and related rights
in the area. Relations between Turkey and Greece were very
sour between 1970's and mid 1990's because of these disputes
on territorial waters, national airspace and FIR lines,
military flights, demilitarization of some of the islands,
and islets that had an unknown status of sovereignty. But in
the last 10 years both countries are working hard to improve
bilateral relations reducing tensions and holding diplomatic
lines always open.
Mediterranean Sea (Akdeniz in Turkish) is surrounded by Asia
to the east, Europe to the north and Africa to the south.
It's connected to the Atlantic Ocean to the west with
Gibraltar Strait. It's also connected to the Red Sea in the
southeast with the Suez Canal in Egypt, a man-made canal
built in 1869. And to the east it's connected to the Sea of
Marmara by Dardanelles Strait. Aegean and Marmara Seas are
often considered as a part of the Mediterranean Sea. The sea
gave also its name to the Mediterranean region of Turkey.
Mediterranean covers about 2,5million square kilometers, its
shores were home to many ancient civilizations in the
history, such as Phoenicians, Egyptians, Carthaginians,
Greeks, Lycians, Arabs, Persians, Romans, Byzantines,
Seljuks, Ottomans and so on. The name comes from Latin; Medi
means middle, Terra means land or place. The Romans called
it Mare Nostrum, Our Sea. In Turkish it's called Akdeniz,
There aren't much tides in the Mediterranean because of its
narrow connection with the Atlantic. The average depth is
about 1500 meters and the deepest point reaches at 5267
meters. The coastline is approximately 46,000 kilometers
Countries that border with the Mediterranean are;
In Europe, from west to east; Spain, France, Monaco, Italy,
Malta, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and
Montenegro, Albania, Greece, and European shores of Turkey.
In Asia, from north to south; Asian shores of Turkey, Syria,
Cyprus, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, and Egypt.
In Africa, from east to west; Egypt, Libya, Tunis, Algeria,
Biggest islands in the Mediterranean are; Cyprus, Crete,
Rhodes, Lesbos, Chios, Corfu in the eastern Mediterranean;
Sardegna, Corsica, Sicily, Malta in the central
Mediterranean; Ibiza, Majorca, Minorca in the western